Education|Ithink. However, the uses and gratification theory has been criticized by some scholars for being non-theoretical and vague in defining key concepts and for not providing predictive capacity [9]. Particulars under socialization might be finding old friends, making new friends, learning about events, creating social functions, and feeling connected. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Why you're watching TV series with multiple episodes and multiple seasons, you do develop some kind of relationship with characters. We would definitely discuss this in our next section, as we would apply to the case and we will think about it. Let's take a look. "[22] The study ultimately yielded results through principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation. In 1972 Denis McQuail, Jay Blumler and Joseph Brown suggested that the uses of different types of media could be grouped into 4 categories. Critics argue that it instead is more of an approach to analysis or a data-collecting strategy. motives and gratifications of media users in the center of interest and sees media users playing an active role in the media consumption process He stated, "The issue to be considered here is whether what has been thought about Uses and Gratifications Theory has been an article of faith and if it could now be converted into an empirical question such as: How to measure an active audience?" argued that this could "substantially overestimate" the number of gratifications, and that attempts to address it using in-depth interviews were problematic (p. 323). [21] In research examining Facebook groups' users' gratifications in relation to their civic participation offline, 1,715 college students were asked "to rate their level of agreement with specific reasons for using Facebook groups, including information acquisition about campus/community, entertainment/recreation, social interaction with friends and family, and peer pressure/self satisfaction. In the study, seven motives were identified, through factor analysis, for viewing such animated news videos. According to West and Turner, UGT was an extension of. Media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals[7]. Uses & Gratification Theory DRAFT. … 392-409. Uses are also decided for groups, communities and societies. Diversion, not only your personal experiences, but diversion of your passing time, like routine, as you want to be involved in some other activities. Ruggiero (2000) wrote that "most scholars agree that early research had little theoretical coherence and was primarily behaviorist and individualist in its methodological tendencies. With Benefits to Hindsight : Reflections on Uses and Gratifications Research. West, Richard L., and Lynn H. Turner. For instance, those who were exhibitionistic tended to focus on the social media U&G of showing affection, expressing negative feelings, and being recognized. Findings of this study show that Uses and Gratification theory provides a promising framework to study Augmented Reality, and that U> provides a robust framework that can be supplemented with other theories.[30]. This theory was contemporary because it contradicted older views that assumed the audience was a passive group. Uses and functions of media are different from a person to another and from one situation to other. The next assumption is that people are able to explain their media use pattern and assess the value of each of them. 4. The main method is we usually speak about motive scales development and it would derive from the case-to-case, as many different approaches to the Uses and Gratification and many different tables with the multiple uses have been outlined by the scholars. Littlejohn, 2002; Severin and Tankard, 1997; McQuail 1994. Different types of media compete against each other and against other sources of gratification for viewers’ attention.3. The audience takes an active role in selecting a medium, as well as interpreting it and integrating it into their lives.2. The researchers found four multi-dimensional narcissistic personality types: feeling authoritative or superior, exhibitionistic, exploitative, and often hungry for vanity. Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). The source of media is chosen by audience as per their own needs. [3] The driving question of UGT is: Why do people use media and what do they use them for? Basic research finds that socialization motivates use of friend-networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook. Uses and gratification theory makes you aware of how people use media for their needs and gratification We communicative on a daily basis via a variety of means and channels. 0. ", UGT focuses on "what do people do with media? But they can be generalized and sorted out in different categories. Due to their nature of mobility, constant access, and options to both add and access content, this field is expanding with new research on the motivations behind using mobile phones. Audience is taken as important and goal oriented. Well, what do we do when we need to raise our self-esteem? have a wide range of uses and emotional gratifications,[33] and that these are not mutually exclusive but can overlap with each other. MSDT acknowledges and builds upon UGT because it is based on the assumptions that people have different uses for media that arise from their needs. © 2020 Coursera Inc. All rights reserved. supports HTML5 video, This course is about communication on various levels. The first line is diversion. If you cannot think, others will do thinking for you. Among the criticism most commonly raised in academic literature: Uses and gratifications characterizes people as active and motivated in selecting the media they choose to consume. Self actualization. 204–412). The theory is highly individualistic in nature. And she found out that the respondents would outline emotional Visual Thinking and Learning as the main needs that they're satisfying through this media consumption. New York: Dvell, Sloan, Pearce. Sometimes, you get approved by the society and at this point, it will be the peak of this self actualization. "Mass Communications Research and the Study of Popular Culture: An Editorial Note on a Possible Future for this Journal",, "More than just talk on the move: A use-and-gratification study of the cellular phone", "Understanding Internet Usage: A Social-Cognitive Approach to Uses and Gratifications", "MySpace and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites", "Unpacking the characteristics of Snapchat users: A preliminary investigation and an agenda for future research", "An adoption framework for mobile augmented reality games: The case of Pokémon Go", "Can News Be Imaginative? The four categories were: diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance. We communicate and use media to satisfy those needs and desires. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications. And what is the main methodological approach here? Middlesex, England: Penguin. Paper presented to the Annual Convention of the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass Communications, Baltimore, Maryland. Criticisms of ‘Uses and Gratifications’ The use of retrospective ‘self-reports’ has several limitations. Compared to social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, Snapchat is used more to fulfill private media needs. LaRose, Robert. Well we can, first of all, watch some educational content, as well we can go online and get some tips and advises. People may simply offers reasons which they have heard others mention. Uses and Gratification Theory
2. It all started with Herta Herzog and researched back in 1944, as she was trying to understand what's the needs for soap opera listening at the radio. And you can show the world what are you think about and what are your ideas. [1] Diverging from other media effect theories that question "what does media do to people? Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, and Uses in the Mass Media (4th ed.). The medium that provides the most satisfaction for a person will be used more often than other types. Uses & Gratification Theory. Well, this is what Uses and Gratifications theory's talking about and the main message here is that the audience is active.